The ubiquitous French version of Mary came into the English-speaking world in the nineteenth century. In the United States, Marie was a huge hit at the turn of the last century and for the ensuing fifty years, becoming the seventh most popular name in the country for three years, from 1901 to 1904. Currently number 564 in the US, 247 on Nameberry, in the Top 10 of Austria and Germany, and 40 in its native France.
Now, though, Marie sounds more dated than either Mary or Maria, though it once rivalled both. Even its days as a widely-used middle name have passed. The freshest way to use Marie today may be as the first part of a traditional French double name: Marie-Christine, Marie-Claude, and so on, or the French diminutive Manon.
There have been countless notable Maries over the years, from French Queen Marie Antoinette to physicist Marie Curie to singer Marie Osmond (born Olive Marie).