Parents are beginning to look at imposing, somewhat fusty-sounding names like this one with fresh eyes: they definitely make a strong statement.
Augustus originated as a title given by the Roman Senate to the first Roman Emperor, Octavian, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, in 27 B.C. and adopted by him as a name. In the U.S., Augustus reached a high of Number 175 in 1880, fell off the list in 1970, then made a return appearance in 1991, and is now Number 544.
Augustus Snodgrass is a character in Charles Dickens' novel The Pickwick Papers, and George Bernard Shaw wrote a play titled "Augustus Does His Bit." Augustus John was a famed British portrait painter, and Augustus Saint-Gaudens a well-known sculptor.
No starbaby Augustuses as yet, but Dixie Chick Emily Robson used Augustus as a middle name for her son, and Dan Aykroyd did the same---for his daughter.
The diminutive form, Augustine, is also an interesting option; variant Augustin was used by model Linda Evangelista; and then there is always über-popular August.