1) Vander- To be honest I prefer the name Evander or Xander as the initial doesn't sound complete enough for me but it is my favourite from your list.
2) Vale- This reminds me of Hale which I like but it is quite feminine so to use as a nn is the best option.
3) Vaughn- A well established name which sounds strong and masculine. Associated with an older generation where I'm from but if that isn't an issue for you then that's fine X
Vander - I love Evander, so I would use Vander or just Van as a nickname for Evander. Such a strong sound with a friendly, approachable feel, imo.
Van could also be used as a nn for Donovan.
Vale - I would prefer this as a middle name only.
Vaughn - this is nice, not really my style, but a good name.