Category: pregnancy advice
The one time you’re actually supposed to eat more — and now it suddenly seems like every food is off limits. Here, the final word on which foods to skip and which ones are A-OK during pregnancy.
Watch out for: Soft cheese
Why: Cheeses like feta, goat cheese, Brie, Camembert, blue cheese, and Mexican queso fresco or queso blanco are more apt to be made with unpasteurized milk than harder cheeses like cheddar or Swiss. “There’s a chance these soft cheeses could contain listeria, a bacteria that would otherwise get killed during pasteurization. This infection can lead to miscarriage or preterm delivery,” says Karyn Morse, MD, an ob-gyn at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. Small-batch artisan cheeses (even harmless-sounding ones, like cheddar) are also often unpasteurized.
Bottom line: Check the ingredient list for the word “pasteurized” or opt for cooked cheese instead. You don’t have to ban all cheese from your diet during pregnancy — whether it’s soft or hard, it’s safe to eat as long as the ingredient list says “pasteurized milk.” (Remember to check salad dressings that contain cheese too.) The good news is, many of the soft cheeses you find in a typical grocery store are pasteurized now, says Julie Redfern, RD, a senior nutritionist with the ob-gyn department at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. If you’re out at a restaurant and aren’t sure, ask your server to check, or pick a dish that’s made with cooked cheese, like chicken parm.
Watch out for: Cold cuts and deli meat
Why: As with soft cheeses, there’s a small risk that harmful listeria bacteria may lurk in fresh-from-the-deli-counter meats like turkey and ham. Dr. Morse also advises steering clear of whole, cooked rotisserie chickens and turkey breasts if they’re being stored in a refrigerated case; however, chicken that has been recently cooked and is still under the warmer is fine.
Bottom line: Avoid deli meat straight from the counter, but you can eat it heated up. If the meat is steaming or feels fully warmed through, it’s safe (the heat will kill any harmful bacteria). Granted, the idea of nuked ham slices seems pretty gross. But think of it this way: panini! And if you’re really in the mood for a turkey sandwich, you can indulge occasionally with sealed, pre-packaged cold cuts from the grocery store refrigerated section.
Watch out for: High-mercury fish
Why: Certain fish — mostly big, top-of-the-food chain types — contain high levels of mercury, which isn’t good for anyone’s health, but they can be particularly harmful to a developing baby’s nervous system, lungs, kidneys, vision, and hearing. On the Do-Not-Eat list: shark, swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel, orange roughy, grouper, tuna steaks, saltwater bass, and canned solid white albacore tuna (which is bigger, and has therefore more mercury than the smaller tunas used in the kind labeled “chunk light”), according to Redfern.
Bottom line: Steer clear of high-mercury fish, but don’t give up seafood entirely. Many varieties, like salmon, herring, and sardines, contain heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids including DHA, which research shows may boost fetal brain development. In fact, one recent study found that nearly 75 percent of pregnant women may not be eating enough low-mercury fish during pregnancy.
You should aim for up to 12 ounces a week of these “safe fish” — including salmon, shrimp, haddock, cod, catfish, flounder, sole, tilapia, and scallops. If you love tuna fish sandwiches, you can still eat the canned light kind once a week.
Watch out for: Sushi and sashimi
Why: There’s a slight chance that raw fish may contain bacteria or microbes that could cause food poisoning. “But the main concern with sushi is that in the unlikely event that you get a parasite, it’s not only exceedingly unpleasant, it’s harder to treat in pregnancy. The parasite can also take vital nutrients away from your growing baby,” says Dr. Morse. Plus, some of the most popular sushi rolls (like spicy tuna) may contain too-high mercury levels.
Bottom line: Skip raw-fish sushi, but rolls made with fully-cooked fish are A-OK. Sushi made with eel, crab, or anything done tempura-style (which means it’s been battered and fried) is perfectly safe to eat. California rolls also make the go-for-it list, as do veggie rolls, like avocado or cucumber.
Watch out for: Raw or runny eggs
Why: There’s a slight risk of salmonella and other food-borne illnesses from eggs cooked sunny side up, and from sources of uncooked eggs such as Caesar salad dressing or raw cookie dough. “Your immune system is weaker when you’re pregnant, which means that a bug that wouldn’t have caused food poisoning before may affect you more now,” says Redfern. Also, vomiting or diarrhea that would have just been uncomfortable and annoying before you were pregnant can more easily trigger dehydration now, which has the potential to affect fetal growth and in rare cases can lead to preterm labor.
Bottom line: As long as you make sure your eggs are cooked through, it’s safe to eat them — and you should! Eggs are a great source of protein and choline, a nutrient that research shows may boost fetal brain development and prevent certain birth defects.
Watch out for: High amounts of coffee, soda, or any caffeinated beverage
Why: Some research shows that lots of caffeine (more than two to three cups of coffee a day) can raise your risk of miscarriage. It has also been linked to preterm delivery and low birth weight. A Kaiser Permanente study, for example, found that pregnant women who consumed more than 200 milligrams of caffeine a day had double the miscarriage risk of those who had none.
Bottom line: Limit your caffeine intake, but you don’t have to cut it out entirely. Most experts agree that a small cup of coffee or soda or two a day is probably fine. The tricky thing is that coffee’s potency can vary greatly depending on the beans and how it’s brewed. The cup you get at Starbucks, for example, is likely to be way stronger than the one you’d make at home. Stay under 10 ounces of regular coffee and 20 ounces of regular tea; anything more should be decaf.
Watch out for: Saccharine
Why: Experts advise avoiding saccharine, the stuff in Sweet N’ Low, during pregnancy. “Unlike other artificial sweeteners, like Equal or NutraSweet, saccharine can cross the placenta,” Redfern says. “Even though it’s been shown to be harmless in people, we recommend skipping it just to be extra cautious.
Bottom line: Skip Sweet’N’ Low, but you can use other artificial sweeteners in moderation. Those made with aspartame and sucralose, like Equal, NutraSweet, NutraTaste, and Splenda, are safe, according to the FDA. However, while a diet Coke or the packet of Equal you sprinkle into your cereal is probably fine, you don’t want to eat and drink the stuff all day long, says Redfern.
Watch out for: Herbal teas
Why: Some herbs can have medicinal effects just like actual drugs, which is why the FDA and many doctors advise steering clear of certain varieties. Even though the amount of herbs used in commercial teas isn’t believed to be strong enough to cause problems, because the FDA doesn’t regulate them, there’s no way of knowing exactly how potent they are. “I generally recommend patients avoid teas containing chamomile and hibiscus because some evidence suggests that in high amounts they may cause problems like preterm labor,” says Dr. Morse. Comfrey and sassafras are other herbs that experts recommend pregnant women avoid.
Bottom line: Check your herbal tea ingredient label and ask your doctor if there’s anything in it you should avoid. Not all herbs are unsafe during pregnancy — a cup or two of mild mint or fruit-flavored tea is fine, says Dr. Morse. So are green and black teas. And stick to known brands to be on the safe side.
Watch out for: Spicy foods
Why: Piling on those jalapenos can give pregnant women major heartburn, something you’re already prone to these days. While this won’t harm your baby, it can feel lousy for you. And women with GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease, a more severe, chronic form of heartburn) should take extra care to avoid spicy dishes.
Bottom line: If you get heartburn, skip anything spicy; if you don’t, indulge away. If you’ve heard rumors that things like hot peppers, curries, Tabasco, fiery sauces and the like are thought to bring on labor, ignore them. There’s no evidence that they do.
Watch out for: Alcohol
Why: It’s a well-established fact that drinking alcohol frequently during pregnancy can seriously harm an unborn baby, causing a number of physical and mental birth defects. But we don’t yet know exactly how much is harmful. There’s no research, for instance, on the effects of having just a couple of drinks during pregnancy, so experts can’t say what — if anything — is considered a safe amount. They do know that alcohol crosses the placenta right away, so your baby drinks whatever you do. “Since we don’t know how much alcohol it actually takes to harm a fetus, it’s best to just have none,” says Dr. Morse.
Bottom line: It’s safest to stick to virgin versions of your favorite drinks until baby arrives. But it’s up to you and your healthcare provider to decide what you’re comfortable with. Some doctors may be okay with a small glass of bubbly on New Year’s Eve or an occasional drink toward the end of pregnancy.
This is the second in the series of excerpts we’re running from the highly recommended, up-to-date, interactive guide to pregnancy and infancy, “Ready, Set, Baby!” This one has some fantastic tips for baby-proofing your home that go way beyond the obvious.
Here’s one thing you can be sure of when you become a parent: You’ll never look at your home in quite the same way again. That beloved reclaimed elm coffee table with the rough edges and iron legs? Suddenly it looks like a baby concussion waiting to happen. Not to mention the slippery staircase, the tangle of window blind cords, and the array of cleaning products stashed under the kitchen sink.
Packing up and moving to a cave with your baby and a year’s supply of diapers is one option. But caves can get cramped, and Internet service is spotty. More important, babies like to explore! Exploration is critical to your baby’s motor and brain development, so creating a home where your baby can learn about her environment safely tops the list of parenting responsibilities. Get acquainted with safety latches, gates, and electrical socket plugs. As your baby grows and develops, you will continually need to update your childproofing. While incorporating safety measures is never a substitute for vigilance, childproofing will considerably increase her safety at home.
This is the first in a series of excerpts we’re running from the highly recommended, up-to-date, interactive guide to pregnancy and infancy, “Ready, Set, Baby!”
As a soon-to-be parent, you’ve probably spent a great deal of time arming yourself with the latest wisdom on child-rearing. While this kind of mental preparation is a crucial step, it’s equally important to physically prepare yourself for becoming a parent. That’s because ensuring a healthy baby starts with ensuring a healthy you. Here are a few important steps to get you started:
Clean Up Your Beauty Act
Pregnancy and early parenthood are the perfect times to swap your chemical-filled personal care products for safer ones. While in utero, your baby is exposed to everything that you are. According to a 2005 Environmental Working Group report, researchers who tested the blood, tissue, and cells in umbilical cords were surprised to find 248 different chemicals not normally present in the human body, including mercury, fossil fuels, and chemicals used to make flame retardants.
Personal care products can be a major source of chemical exposure. Once outside the womb, your infant will spend countless hours nuzzled against you, touching your face, hair, hands, lips, and the rest of your body. It’s fair to say whatever lipstick or cologne you’re wearing, your baby is pretty much wearing it too. The ingredients in these products are largely unregulated—the U.S. government doesn’t require health studies or pre-market testing for these products before marketing and selling them to consumers.
The Environmental Working Group provides a carefully researched list of ingredients to avoid, including oxybenzone in sunscreens, parabens and fragrances in hair products, formaldehyde in nail polish, triclosans in toothpastes and soaps, and retinyl palmitate in lipsticks and body lotions.
Clean Up Your Diet
What better time than pregnancy to clean up your diet? Limit processed foods and eat more organic fruits, veggies, and whole grains. Try to buy meats and poultry that are free-range, and are free from antibiotics. For the latter, look for labels that say “no antibiotics added,” “no antibiotics ever,” “no added antibiotics,” or “raised without the use of antibiotics.” According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the term “antibiotic-free” has no meaning when it appears on labels. If you plan to breastfeed, you should continue to avoid processed foods while nursing.
- • Shark
- • Swordfish
- • Shark
- • Tilefish
Safe to Eat
One Serving per Week
(6 ounces total)
- • Canned Albacore Tuna
- • Chunk White Tuna
- • Canned Albacore Tuna
Some locally caught fish can also pose a danger to your baby’s developing nervous system, so be sure to check out the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s fish advisories and the Mayo Clinic’s guide to foods to avoid during pregnancy.
Clean Your Hands
If you’re not a regular hand washer, you should become one. If you do, you can significantly reduce the number of illnesses your infant develops during his first year. You’re probably washing after you use the bathroom, but you should start scrubbing up once you return from work, before and after preparing food, after touching a pet, before holding your infant, after a diaper change, after taking out the trash … you get the idea.
Avoid using antibacterial soap and cleansers that contain triclosan—many do, so be sure to check the ingredients listed on the package. Hand sanitizers such as Purell generally do not contain triclosan and are fine for you to use before touching your baby.
Clean Up Your Cleaning Products
Do everyone in the house a favor, and swap chemical-laden products for greener vinegar- or citric acid-based options. Products with bleach create fumes that can be tough on an infant’s delicate respiratory system. One major complaint with green cleaning products is that they are not as effective as traditional ones. This is sometimes true, and you may need to experiment with a few products to find the ones that work for you. The Environmental Working Group has a list of more than 2,000 cleaning products ranked from least to most toxic.
It’s also a good idea to use perfume- and dye-free laundry detergent since you’re baby will spend a lot of time resting up against your clothes.
Clean Up Your Floors
Removing your shoes before you walk in the house will cut down on the number of chemicals and other pollutants you track into your home. Before you know it, your infant will be sitting, crawling, and walking across your floors, so why not get in the shoe-removal habit right now and encourage guests to do the same? Leave a couple of pairs of slippers in a basket by the door that are reserved for home use only.
Clean Up the Air
We’re not telling you anything you haven’t heard before, but it’s worth the reminder: If you smoke, you should quit, especially now that you’ll have a baby in the house. If you decide to continue smoking once your baby is born, never smoke around your baby or in your home. Secondhand smoke increases a child’s risk of respiratory infections, asthma, and certain cancers, including lung cancer, childhood leukemia, and cancers of the throat, brain, bladder, and rectum.
Follow these steps and you’ll be well on your way to being ready for your new baby.
This pregnancy advice post is an excerpt from Ready, Set, Baby! The Watch and Learn Guide to Your Baby’s First Year, written and produced by Maureen Connolly and published by Open Air Publishing. For more on the guide or to order your own interactive e-book, go to the Ready, Set, Baby! website.