Category: Pregnancy & Baby
Grandparents, friends, and society flood parents with well-meaning advice, but how can Mom and Dad be sure they are receiving accurate information? With help from Dr. Andrew Adesman and his book Baby Facts, we separate baby myths from reality.
Baby’s Sleep Position
Myth: It’s OK to put your baby to sleep on his side.
Reality: To reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, healthy babies should always be put to sleep on their back — not their stomach or sides.
Dr. Adesman explains: “Part of the reason for the confusion is that when the government first came out with its ‘Back to Sleep’ campaign, it said side or back, but just a couple years later, it modified this recommendation because sometimes babies roll from their side onto their belly. The safest sleep position for babies is on their back. Unfortunately, some pediatricians are still giving parents misinformation.”
Few women who’ve done it would say that giving birth is easy. But preparing the way helps. Here are some last-minute tips to get ready for your big day.
Install the Car Seat
The one absolutely essential piece of baby gear is your car seat. Most hospitals won’t let baby leave unless you’ve got one. If you’re driving your own car, go ahead and put the seat in now, so you have plenty of time to make sure it’s installed correctly. If you’ll be taking a taxi, practice installing it in a car once or twice to familiarize yourself with the seat.
The one time you’re actually supposed to eat more — and now it suddenly seems like every food is off limits. Here, the final word on which foods to skip and which ones are A-OK during pregnancy.
Watch out for: Soft cheese
Why: Cheeses like feta, goat cheese, Brie, Camembert, blue cheese, and Mexican queso fresco or queso blanco are more apt to be made with unpasteurized milk than harder cheeses like cheddar or Swiss. “There’s a chance these soft cheeses could contain listeria, a bacteria that would otherwise get killed during pasteurization. This infection can lead to miscarriage or preterm delivery,” says Karyn Morse, MD, an ob-gyn at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. Small-batch artisan cheeses (even harmless-sounding ones, like cheddar) are also often unpasteurized.
Bottom line: Check the ingredient list for the word “pasteurized” or opt for cooked cheese instead. You don’t have to ban all cheese from your diet during pregnancy — whether it’s soft or hard, it’s safe to eat as long as the ingredient list says “pasteurized milk.” (Remember to check salad dressings that contain cheese too.) The good news is, many of the soft cheeses you find in a typical grocery store are pasteurized now, says Julie Redfern, RD, a senior nutritionist with the ob-gyn department at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. If you’re out at a restaurant and aren’t sure, ask your server to check, or pick a dish that’s made with cooked cheese, like chicken parm.
Watch out for: Cold cuts and deli meat
Why: As with soft cheeses, there’s a small risk that harmful listeria bacteria may lurk in fresh-from-the-deli-counter meats like turkey and ham. Dr. Morse also advises steering clear of whole, cooked rotisserie chickens and turkey breasts if they’re being stored in a refrigerated case; however, chicken that has been recently cooked and is still under the warmer is fine.
Bottom line: Avoid deli meat straight from the counter, but you can eat it heated up. If the meat is steaming or feels fully warmed through, it’s safe (the heat will kill any harmful bacteria). Granted, the idea of nuked ham slices seems pretty gross. But think of it this way: panini! And if you’re really in the mood for a turkey sandwich, you can indulge occasionally with sealed, pre-packaged cold cuts from the grocery store refrigerated section.
Watch out for: High-mercury fish
Why: Certain fish — mostly big, top-of-the-food chain types — contain high levels of mercury, which isn’t good for anyone’s health, but they can be particularly harmful to a developing baby’s nervous system, lungs, kidneys, vision, and hearing. On the Do-Not-Eat list: shark, swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel, orange roughy, grouper, tuna steaks, saltwater bass, and canned solid white albacore tuna (which is bigger, and has therefore more mercury than the smaller tunas used in the kind labeled “chunk light”), according to Redfern.
Bottom line: Steer clear of high-mercury fish, but don’t give up seafood entirely. Many varieties, like salmon, herring, and sardines, contain heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids including DHA, which research shows may boost fetal brain development. In fact, one recent study found that nearly 75 percent of pregnant women may not be eating enough low-mercury fish during pregnancy.
You should aim for up to 12 ounces a week of these “safe fish” — including salmon, shrimp, haddock, cod, catfish, flounder, sole, tilapia, and scallops. If you love tuna fish sandwiches, you can still eat the canned light kind once a week.
Watch out for: Sushi and sashimi
Why: There’s a slight chance that raw fish may contain bacteria or microbes that could cause food poisoning. “But the main concern with sushi is that in the unlikely event that you get a parasite, it’s not only exceedingly unpleasant, it’s harder to treat in pregnancy. The parasite can also take vital nutrients away from your growing baby,” says Dr. Morse. Plus, some of the most popular sushi rolls (like spicy tuna) may contain too-high mercury levels.
Bottom line: Skip raw-fish sushi, but rolls made with fully-cooked fish are A-OK. Sushi made with eel, crab, or anything done tempura-style (which means it’s been battered and fried) is perfectly safe to eat. California rolls also make the go-for-it list, as do veggie rolls, like avocado or cucumber.
Watch out for: Raw or runny eggs
Why: There’s a slight risk of salmonella and other food-borne illnesses from eggs cooked sunny side up, and from sources of uncooked eggs such as Caesar salad dressing or raw cookie dough. “Your immune system is weaker when you’re pregnant, which means that a bug that wouldn’t have caused food poisoning before may affect you more now,” says Redfern. Also, vomiting or diarrhea that would have just been uncomfortable and annoying before you were pregnant can more easily trigger dehydration now, which has the potential to affect fetal growth and in rare cases can lead to preterm labor.
Bottom line: As long as you make sure your eggs are cooked through, it’s safe to eat them — and you should! Eggs are a great source of protein and choline, a nutrient that research shows may boost fetal brain development and prevent certain birth defects.
Watch out for: High amounts of coffee, soda, or any caffeinated beverage
Why: Some research shows that lots of caffeine (more than two to three cups of coffee a day) can raise your risk of miscarriage. It has also been linked to preterm delivery and low birth weight. A Kaiser Permanente study, for example, found that pregnant women who consumed more than 200 milligrams of caffeine a day had double the miscarriage risk of those who had none.
Bottom line: Limit your caffeine intake, but you don’t have to cut it out entirely. Most experts agree that a small cup of coffee or soda or two a day is probably fine. The tricky thing is that coffee’s potency can vary greatly depending on the beans and how it’s brewed. The cup you get at Starbucks, for example, is likely to be way stronger than the one you’d make at home. Stay under 10 ounces of regular coffee and 20 ounces of regular tea; anything more should be decaf.
Watch out for: Saccharine
Why: Experts advise avoiding saccharine, the stuff in Sweet N’ Low, during pregnancy. “Unlike other artificial sweeteners, like Equal or NutraSweet, saccharine can cross the placenta,” Redfern says. “Even though it’s been shown to be harmless in people, we recommend skipping it just to be extra cautious.
Bottom line: Skip Sweet’N’ Low, but you can use other artificial sweeteners in moderation. Those made with aspartame and sucralose, like Equal, NutraSweet, NutraTaste, and Splenda, are safe, according to the FDA. However, while a diet Coke or the packet of Equal you sprinkle into your cereal is probably fine, you don’t want to eat and drink the stuff all day long, says Redfern.
Watch out for: Herbal teas
Why: Some herbs can have medicinal effects just like actual drugs, which is why the FDA and many doctors advise steering clear of certain varieties. Even though the amount of herbs used in commercial teas isn’t believed to be strong enough to cause problems, because the FDA doesn’t regulate them, there’s no way of knowing exactly how potent they are. “I generally recommend patients avoid teas containing chamomile and hibiscus because some evidence suggests that in high amounts they may cause problems like preterm labor,” says Dr. Morse. Comfrey and sassafras are other herbs that experts recommend pregnant women avoid.
Bottom line: Check your herbal tea ingredient label and ask your doctor if there’s anything in it you should avoid. Not all herbs are unsafe during pregnancy — a cup or two of mild mint or fruit-flavored tea is fine, says Dr. Morse. So are green and black teas. And stick to known brands to be on the safe side.
Watch out for: Spicy foods
Why: Piling on those jalapenos can give pregnant women major heartburn, something you’re already prone to these days. While this won’t harm your baby, it can feel lousy for you. And women with GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease, a more severe, chronic form of heartburn) should take extra care to avoid spicy dishes.
Bottom line: If you get heartburn, skip anything spicy; if you don’t, indulge away. If you’ve heard rumors that things like hot peppers, curries, Tabasco, fiery sauces and the like are thought to bring on labor, ignore them. There’s no evidence that they do.
Watch out for: Alcohol
Why: It’s a well-established fact that drinking alcohol frequently during pregnancy can seriously harm an unborn baby, causing a number of physical and mental birth defects. But we don’t yet know exactly how much is harmful. There’s no research, for instance, on the effects of having just a couple of drinks during pregnancy, so experts can’t say what — if anything — is considered a safe amount. They do know that alcohol crosses the placenta right away, so your baby drinks whatever you do. “Since we don’t know how much alcohol it actually takes to harm a fetus, it’s best to just have none,” says Dr. Morse.
Bottom line: It’s safest to stick to virgin versions of your favorite drinks until baby arrives. But it’s up to you and your healthcare provider to decide what you’re comfortable with. Some doctors may be okay with a small glass of bubbly on New Year’s Eve or an occasional drink toward the end of pregnancy.
While billions of people worldwide are waiting with anticipation to see when Kate Middleton will go into labor this July, there’s only one person who will make her child’s birth an event that will go down in history: Prince William. According to reports, he is planning to be in the delivery room with Kate, which may sound like no big deal (um, aren’t all dads these days?), but it is apparently a historical occasion.
This would be the first royal birth ever where the dad was present for the delivery. That’s right, when Prince William was born, Prince Charles was off playing polo. When Prince Charles was born, Prince Philip was playing squash. And the list goes on and on.
This is the fourth in the series of excerpts we’re running from the highly recommended, up-to-date, interactive guide to pregnancy and infancy, “Ready, Set, Baby!” Last week’s excerpt covered essential guidelines for setting up a safe nursery. This week the team behind “Ready, Set, Baby!” follows up with a post on one of the most crucial parts of nursery safety: selecting a bassinet and crib.
Before you bring your baby home from the hospital, be sure to double-check that your crib, bassinet, and sleep environment are all set up in accordance with these important safe nursery guidelines.
Nighttime Sleep: Your Bedroom or the Nursery?
There is no official recommendation on where a newborn should sleep—a crib in the nursery or a bassinet in your room. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics’ SIDS Guidelines say that newborns who sleep in the same room as their parents—but don’t share their parents’ bed—may have a lower incidence of SIDS. (You can certainly have a crib in your bedroom instead of a bassinet, but, practically speaking, most people don’t do this because it takes a lot of space.) Room sharing makes frequent middle-of-the-night-feedings in the first six to eight weeks much more convenient. It can also be reassuring for new parents to see and hear their newborn.
Some couples, however, find having their newborn right next to their bed very disruptive to their sleep. (Every time baby grunts or whines, the parents wake up!) They often use an audio or audio/video monitor to track their baby’s sleep. At some point all parents will have to transition their baby into his own room. This can be challenging for some babies (and parents) who have grown accustomed to sleeping in the same room. Meanwhile, other babies transition rather seamlessly.
A bassinet is smaller than a crib, often portable, and because of its small size and lower weight capacity is designed to be used only for the first few months of an infant’s life. It’s important to make sure your bassinet meets federal standards for safety.
When selecting and setting up your bassinet, you’ll also want to take several other factors into account:
1. Firm Mattress: Be sure the mattress is firm and fits snugly inside the bassinet.
2. Maximum Slat Spacing: If there are slats, they should be no more than 2? inches (6 centimeters) apart.
3. Sturdy Base: The legs should be strong and the locks securely fastened to prevent folding while in use. The bottom of the bassinet must be sturdy and have a wide base so it can’t be knocked over easily.
4. Clear Interior: The interior should be free of any protruding hardware or material that could harm your baby.
5. Locked Wheels: If there are wheels, be sure to lock them in place any time your baby is placed in the bassinet.
A crib is larger and sturdier than a bassinet. It will accommodate your infant well into his second year of life. It’s important to make sure your crib meets federal standards for safety.
It’s critical that you position the crib in a safe spot:
- A crib should never be placed in front of a drafty window or beneath blind cords that your baby can grab as she grows bigger.
- Consider what the baby will be able to reach from her crib as she learns to sit up and stand—any artwork displayed on the walls near the crib should be firmly mounted, not just hanging on a wire across a nail.
- Avoid placing a crib near bookshelves or a dresser with items that could be choking hazards.
- When your baby is 5 months old or has begun to push up on his hands and knees, whichever comes first, remove all crib toys and mobiles that are strung across the crib or playpen area that he might be able to reach.
You”ll also want to make sure your crib has the following:
1. Firm Mattress: Make sure the mattress is firm and is covered by a fitted sheet that meets the latest Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) safety standards.
2. Fixed Side Rail: The side should not drop down. If you bought or inherited an older crib that has a drop down side rail, retrofit kits are available and should be used to immobilize the drop-side.
3. Maximum Slat Spacing: Slats should never be more than 2? inches (6 centimeters) apart. There should be no more than two fingers of space between the rails and the mattress.
4. No Extended Corner Posts: Be sure corner posts are no higher than 1/16 of an inch (1.6 millimeters) above the height of the end panel. If the posts are any higher, the likelihood of a child’s clothing getting caught increases, which could pose a strangulation hazard.
5. Nothing Else in the Crib: Make sure there is nothing else in the crib. There should be no toys, stuffed animals, blankets, bumper pads, loose sheets, or anything else that could end up near your baby’s face and potentially impair breathing.
6. Regularly Check the Crib: Check crib hardware regularly to make sure there are no loose nuts, bolts, or screws.
Why Drop-Side Rail Cribs Are Not Considered Safe
Drop-side rail cribs were deemed unsafe by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in June 2011. Although manufacturers were ordered to stop producing and selling them, cribs are often passed down among family and friends or picked up at yard sales or secondhand shops. Why are drop-side cribs risky? Because the side of the crib is designed to move up and down, it can trap your baby between the mattress and rails, leading to suffocation or strangulation. Some manufacturers provide a toolkit to help retrofit the side rail so that it’s permanently locked into place. However, if you are thinking of using a secondhand crib, note that as cribs age, their joints and rails tend to give way more easily. To avoid injury to your infant, these parts should never be more than 2? inches (6 centimeters) apart. Also make sure that the mattress is firm and covered by a fitted sheet that meets the latest CPSC safety standards.
For more on safe nursery setup, see “Prepare Your Baby’s Nursery.”
This valuable pregnancy advice post is an excerpt from “Ready, Set, Baby! The Watch and Learn Guide to Your Baby’s First Year.”